The Phases of Meiosis
-the cell replicates its chromosomes
-each chromosome has two sister chromatids held together by a centromere
Prophase 1:
-chromosomes coil up and a spindle forms
-homologous chromosomes come together matched gene by gene forming a tetrad
-Crossing Over may occur when chromatids exchange genetic material
-this occurs two or three times per pair of homologous chromosomes
-Crossing Over results in new combinations of alleles on a chromosomes
Metaphase 1:
-the centromere of each chromosome becomes attached to a spindle fiber
-the spindle fibers pull the tetrads to the equator of the spindle
-homologous chromosomes are lined up side by side as tetrads
Anaphase 1:
-homologous chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell
-centromeres do not split
-this ensures that each new cell will receive only one chromosome from each homologous
Telophase 1:
-the spindle breaks down and the chromosomes uncoil
-the cytoplasm divides to yield two new cells
-each cell has half the genetic information of the original cell because it has only one homologous
chromosome from each pair
Prophase II-
-a spindle forms in each of the two new cells and the fibers attach to the chromosomes
Metaphase II-
-the chromosomes are pulled to the center of the cell and line up randomly at the equator
Anaphase II-
-the centromere of each chromosome splits
-the sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles
Telophase II-
-nuclei re-form
-the spindles break down
-the cytoplasm divides
-identical to mitosis (Meiosis II)
What Meiosis produces:
-four haploid sex cells from one original diploid cell
-each haploid cell contains one chromosome from each homologous pair
-haploid cells will become gametes transmitting genes to offspring