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Fourth Quarter Assignments 09
Third Quarter Assignments 09
Second Quarter Assignments 08
First Quarter Assignments 08

Second Quarter Assignments are listed below:


# of Assignment..........Date

Final Review:
Write information about the following topics. You can use this on your final.
Scientific method
Hypothesis
Control
Variable
Theory
Law - results or observations that seem always to be true and describes what happens, but doesn't explain why.
Cell
Homeostasis
Cell membrane
Cytoplasm
Cell wall
Organelle
Nucleus
Chloroplasts
Mitochondria
Ribosomes
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Golgi Bodies
Tissue
Organ
Organ System p.10
Hooke
Leeuwenhoek
Schleiden
Schwann
Virchow - made the first powerful microscopes and described microorganisms. (First microbiologist)
Cell Theory
Virus
Host Cell
Vaccine
Antibiotics
Interferons
Gene Therapy


Extra Credit: Points earned base on amount of details and effort.
(This is also a good review of chapter 3 for the final)
Copy the figures and tables. Answer the questions.
Page 70 / Table 2: 2 pts.
Page 71 / Table 3: 2 pts.
Page 75 / Figure 7: 3 pts.
Page 76 / Figure 8: 3 pts.
Page 77 / Figure 9: 3 pts.
Page 79 / Figure 11: 8 pts.
Page 81 / Figure 12: 3 pts.
Page 82 / Figure 13: 3 pts.
Page 83 / Figure 14: 2 pts.
Page 84 / Figure 15: 2 pts.
Page 91 / Question 18: 3 pts.
Page 91 / Question 27: 2 pts.
Page 93 / Question 93: 2 pts.
Page 93/ Question 18: 3pts.
Page 93 / Question 19: 2 pts
Page 93 / Question 20: 3 pts
Page 93 / Question 21: 3 pts
Page 93 / Question 22: 2 pts


#62.....................Due 1/7/09
3-2 Moving Materials
Explain the following terms: (p. 72)
1. Selectively permeable...............11. Enzyme
2. Passive Transport.....................12. Photosynthesis
3. Diffusion...................................13. Light dependent reaction
4. Equilibrium...............................14. Grana
5. Osmosis..................................15. Light-independent reaction
6. Facilitated diffusion...................16. Stroma
7. Active Transport........................17. Chlorophyll
8. Endocytosis .............................18. Glucose
9. Exocytosis...............................19. Cellulose
10. Metabolism.............................20. Starch


#61......Due 1/6
3rd Ch. Chemistry of Life
Explain the following terms:
1. Matter..............................11. Solution
2. Energy.............................12. Suspension
3. Atom................................13. Organic Compound
4. Chemical reaction..............14. Carbohydrate
5. Element............................15. Lipid
6. Compound........................16. Protein
7. Molecular compound..........17. Nucleic acids
8. Ionic compound.................18. Inorganic Compounds
9. Ion....................................19. Cohesion
10. Mixture............................20. Freezing/Ice


#60...............12/19
Life in the Freezer
20 facts about five or more species of living things in Antarctica.

#59..............

#58..............Due 12/17
Glycolysis and Krebs Cycle of Cellular Respiration
Draw the diagrams and write the numbered text below them. Add on to each diagram as shown.
MittochondrionDrawn.jpg

1. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm
2. The Krebs cycle occurs in the matrix
3. Electron transport occurs across the inner membrane

Glycolysis1.jpg
1. Glycolysis starts with the splitting of glucose in the cells cytoplasm.
Glycolysis2.jpg
2. The splitting of glucose uses two ATP.
Glycolysis3.jpg
3. The glucose pieces are used to make four ATP, so there is a net gain of 2 ATPs.
Glycolysis4.jpg
4. Two NADH molecules are also made.
5. The glucose pieces go to the Krebs cycle and the NADH goes to the electron transport chain

Krebcycle1.JPG
1. The Krebs cycle occurs in the matrix of the mitochondrion
2. The Krebs cycle uses the two glucose pieces from glycolysis
Krebcycle2.JPG
3. Carbon dioxide is produced as waste from the carbon in the glucose pieces. (This is the CO2 we exhale)
Krebcycle3.JPG
4. Two ATP are produced.
Krebcycle4.JPG
5. Two FADH2 and 8 NADH are produced and the hydrogen atoms in these molecules are used in electron transport.




#57................Due 12/16
Cellular Respiration's Three Stages, an Overview:
Draw the diagram and write the numbered facts below it. Add on to your diagram with each additional picutre.
CellRespOviewsmall1.jpg
1. The first stage of cellular respiration is glycolysis and occurs in the cytoplasm.
2. The next two stages are the Krebs cycle and electron transport which occur in the mitochondria.
CellRespOviewsmall2.jpg
3. In glycolysis, a molecule of glucose is split in two. These two pieces will later be used by the Krebs cycle.

CellRespOviewsmall3.jpg
4. Two molecules of ATP are produce by glycolysis.
5. Two energy containing molecules of NADH are also produced that will be used in the electron transport stage.

CellRespOviewsmall4.jpg
6. The Krebs cycle occurs in the mitochondria.
7. The Krebs cycle uses the glucose pieces produced by glycolysis.
8. Two molecules of ATP are produced by the Krebs cycle.
9. Eight molecules of NADH and two molecules of FADH2 are also produced that will also be used in electron transport stage.
10. Carbon dioxide is produced as waste from the carbon in the glucose pieces. (This is the CO2 we exhale)

CellRespOviewsmall5.jpg
11. Electron transport occurs in the mitochondria and requires oxygen. (This is why we inhale O2.)
12. Electron transport produces 32 ATP and oxygen is combined with hydrogen producing water.

#56................Due 12/12
African Wild Dog Facts
12 facts written in your own words.


Using a microscope:
Steps to follow for setting up a microscope
Grasping the arm, lift the microscope, and placing a hand under the base
Carry and set the microscope at a work station
Remove the cover
Make sure the body tube was left all the way up
Raise the body tube all the way if it wasn't already
Make sure the microscope was left on low power lens (4X)
Gently turn the nose-piece to the low power objective lens if its not already
Plug in and turn on the light
Set the diaphragm so it allows the most light through
Place a slide under the stage clips with the cover slip up
Steps to follow for switching to low power
Look at the low power objective lens from the side
Lower the body tube until the objective is just off the slide or it stops
Grasp the big focus knob and look through the microscope
Focus the microscope by turning the big focus knob counter clockwise
Center what you want to look at in the field of view by moving the slide
Improve the focus using the big and little focus knobs
Steps to follow for switching to medium power
Look at the nose-piece from the side.
Gently turn the nose-piece to the medium power lens (10X)
Watch to make sure the lens doesn't hit the slide as you turn it
Improve the focus using ONLY the SMALL focus knob
Do not turn the small focus knob more than one turn
If the object doesn't come into focus return to low power and try again
Center what you want to look at in the field of view by moving the slide
Improve the focus using ONLY the SMALL focus knob as needed
Steps to follow for switching to high power
Look at the nose-piece from the side.
Gently turn the nose-piece to the high power lens (40X)
Watch to make sure the lens doesn't hit the slide as you turn it
Improve the focus using ONLY the SMALL focus knob
Do not turn the small focus knob more than one-half turn
If the object doesn't come into focus return to medium or low power and try again
Center what you want to look at in the field of view by moving the slide
Improve the focus using ONLY the SMALL focus knob as needed
Steps to follow when you are finished viewing with a microscope
Look at the nose-piece from the side
Gently turn the nose piece to the low power lens (4X)
Raise the top tube until it stops with out jamming it
Remove the slide
Clean and return the slide along with the cover slip
Turn off the light and unplug the cord
Coil the cord and set it over the eye piece
Put the cover on the microscope
Carry the microscope with one hand grasping the arm and the other under its base
Place the microscope in the cabinet

#54..............Due 12/11
Photosynthesis
Write the following topics followed by the details presented in the text.
Page Number/ Paragraph Number
305/1 Photosynthesis process
305/2 Reactants and products of photosynthesis
305/3 Light-Dependent reaction of photosynthesis
306/1 Light-independent reaction of photosynthesis
306/2 Destiny of photosynthesis products
306/3 Photosynthesis relationship to a plant's growth
*Answer in complete sentences*
1. What is produced by photosynthesis?
2. In what cell structure does photosynthesis occur?
3. What are the reactants of photosynthesis?
4. What are the products of photosynthesis?
5. What is light energy used to do in photosynthesis?
6. Where does the water's oxygen go?
7. Where is the water's hydrogen used?
8. In what part of photosynthesis is carbon dioxide used?
9. What is made by combining carbon dioxide and the hydrogen?
10 What happens to the oxygen produced by photosynthesis?
11. What happens to the glucose produced by photosynthesis?
13. How do plants grow?
14. What substances is used to make cellulose?

#53...............
Fermentation
1. As you know, you cannot survive without oxygen. However, certain cells in your body-namely, your muscle cells-can produce energy without oxygen. Some unicellular organisms such as yeast can also break down carbohydrates without oxygen. Anaerobic respiration is the process that releases energy from food molecules in the absence of oxygen. Through fermentation, anaerobic organisms and cells can exist without oxygen by using the small amount of energy supplied by glycolysis.
2. Fermentation is the extraction of energy from pyruvate in the absence of oxygen. There are two types of fermentation: alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid fermentation. In both types of fermentation, only two ATP molecules are formed from each molecule of glucose.
3. Yeasts are unicellular fungi that use aerobic respiration when oxygen is present. But yeasts switch to anaerobic respiration when oxygen is absent. Yeasts carry out alcoholic fermentation, the type of anaerobic respiration that converts pyruvate to carbon dioxide and ethanol. The process, shown below, gets its name from the fact that one of its products, ethanol, is an alcohol.
4. Alcoholic fermentation is an important economic resource. Bakers use the alcoholic fermentation of yeas to make breads. As yeasts break down the carbohydrates in dough, C02 is produced and trapped in the dough. The bubbles of trapped CO2 cause the dough to rise and are visible as the small holes in baked bread. As the dough bakes, the yeasts die, and the alcohol evaporates.
5. Alcoholic fermentation is also used to make wine, beer, and the ethanol that is added to gasoline to make gasohol.
Animal cells cannot perform alcoholic fermentation. However, some cells, such as your muscle cells, can convert pyruvate to lactic acid. Anaerobic respiration in which pyruvate is converted to lactic acid is called lactic acid fermentation. During strenuous exercise, your breathing cannot provide you with all of the oxygen that your cells need. When muscle cells run out of oxygen, they switch from aerobic respiration to lactic acid fermentation. The process is shown below:
6. The athletes may soon experience the muscle fatigue and soreness caused by the buildup of lactic acid. Most of the lactic acid made in the muscles diffuses into the bloodstream and then into the liver, where it will be converted back to pyruvate. Have you ever felt muscle soreness after exercise?
Write the topics and details
1 Anaerobic Respiration
2 Fermentation
3 Fermentation in yeast
4 Alcoholic fermentation
5 Lactic acid fermentation
6 Fermentation in muscle cells
(Answer in complete sentences)
1.What is anaerobic respiration?
2.What does fermentation allow anaerobic cell and organisms to do?
3.What are the two types of fermentation?
4.What are the waste products of fermentation by yeast?
5.Why does dough rise?
6.What is lactic acid fermentation?
7.When do muscle cells produce lactic acid?


#52................

#51................Due 12/19
Focus Items

#50 ...............Due 12/6
Cellular Respiration Questions

Electron Transport – Overview
The electron transport stage is the process by which energy is transferred from NADH and FADH2 to ATP and occurs at the inner membranes of the mitochondria. The energy containing molecules NADH and FADH2 produced by glycolysis and the Krebs cycle are used to make ATP from ADP in this process. The process of electron transport requires oxygen. (We breath in oxygen for this reason and breath out the carbon dioxide produced in the Krebs cycle.) In this process electrons are passed across carrier molecule and their energy is used to move H+ ions across the mitochondrion's inner membrane. The movement of these hydrogen atoms back across the membrane is used to make ATP from ADP. After this the H+ ions bond with oxygen to form water molecules. This process generates 32 ATP molecules for every molecule of glucose molecule that undergoes total aerobic respiration.
Electron Transport- Details
Electron transport uses a series of molecules in a membrane that transfer electrons from one to another.
The chain of electron transport molecules and the enzyme that makes ATP are embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion in folds called cristae. The electron transport uses Hydrogen atoms from NADH and FADH2 to produce ATP. To understand how electron transport produces ATP, the electrons and hydrogen atoms of NADH and FADH2 must be followed.
1. At the start of the chain a molecule of NADH gives up a hydrogen atom and becomes HAD+. The electron from this atom is passed down the chain of molecules, while the rest of it, a hydrogen ion, is passed across the membrane.
2. Farther down the chain a molecule of FADH2 gives up a hydrogen atoms and becomes FAD. The electrons from these atoms also pass down the chain, while the rest of it, another hydrogen ion, is passed across the membrane.
3. As the electrons pass down the chain and reenter the matrix, their energy is used to move more hydrogen ions across the membrane.
4. All these hydrogen ions that were move into the intermembrane space make a concentration and electrical difference from the matrix.
5. This difference causes hydrogen ions to move through the enzymes that makes ATP from ADP. The hydrogen ions return to the matrix and combine with Oxygen plus the electrons returning from being transported to make water molecules. The enzymes that make ATP are embedded in the inner membrane like the transport molecules.
ElectronTransportCut.jpg

1. Answer in complete sentences. (Page 91)
2. What are complex carbohydrates broken down into?
3. By what process is the energy in glucose released?
4. What is cellular respiration?
5. How are the two types of cellular respiration different?
6. How much energy does aerobic respiration get from one molecule of glucose?
7. How much energy does anaerobic respiration get from one glucose molecule?
8. How do the reactants and products of photosynthesis and cellular respiration compare?
9. In what organelle does photosynthesis occur?
10. Where in the cell does anaerobic respiration occur?
11. Where in the cell does aerobic respiration occur?
12. What are the three stages of aerobic respiration?
13. What is the anaerobic step of cellular respiration called?
14. Where does glycolysis occur?
15. Where does the Kreb cycle and electron transport occur?
16. Sketch and explain figure 4.10 on page 91.
Extra Credit beyond this point.
17. What will glycolysis produce from one glucose molecule?
18. What are the products of the Kreb cycle?
19. How many ATP molecules are produced from the Kreb cycle?
20. What is electron transport?
21. Where does electron transport occur?
22. How many ATP are produced by electron transport?


#49.................Due 12/4
Photosynthesis Quesitons

ENERGY FROM SUNLIGHT
Without the energy of sunlight, life as we know it could not exist. As you have learned, most autotrophs can use the sun's energy. The process by which autotrophs convert sunlight to a usable form of energy is photosynthesis. Photosynthesis supports most of the life on Earth.
Only a small percentage of the sun's energy is in the form of visible light. Although visible light appears as white light, it is actually a combination of different colors. Each color has a different wavelength and different energy.
Autotrophs that perform photosynthesis contain chemicals called pigments. A pigment is a molecule that absorbs certain wavelengths of light and reflects others. The reflected wavelengths determine what color you perceive an object to be. If the pigments of the apple absorb all wavelengths of light except red, the red wavelength is reflected to your eye, and the apple appears to be red. The combination of pigments in an object determines the wavelengths that are absorbed and reflected-in other words, its color.
Certain pigments in autotrophs are essential for photosynthesis. The most common and important of these photosynthetic pigments is called chlorophyll. Chlorophyll absorbs violet, blue, and red light-the wavelengths that provide energy for photosynthesis. Because chlorophyll does not absorb green light but rather reflects it, most plants look green.
Chlorophyll a is the primary pigment for photosynthesis in all plants and algae. Other pigments, called accessory pigments, absorb some colors of light that are not absorbed by chlorophyll. These pigments release energy to chlorophyll molecules for photosynthesis.
CHLOROPLASTS
In many autotrophs, the chlorophyll and other pigments are located in specialized organelles called chloroplasts. A chloroplast is an organelle that performs photosynthesis. A photosynthetic plant cell typically contains anywhere from 30 to 50 chloroplasts. Just one square millimeter of a castor bean leaf, however, contains about 500,000 chloroplasts.
The structure of the chloroplast has two parts. One part is a stacks of disc-shaped structures inside the chloroplast. These stacks are called grana, and they are surrounded by a material called stroma. The individual disc-shaped structures in the grana are called thylakoids. In the thylakoid space is chlorophyll and all of the other pigments necessary for photosynthesis.
Each chloroplast may contain a hundred or more grana. Inside the thylakoids, hundreds of chlorophyll molecules and other pigments are organized into units called photosystems. Photosystems are the light-collecting units of the chloroplast. Inside chloroplasts, the sun's energy is captured and converted into chemical energy.
OVERVIEW OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS
During photosynthesis, autotrophs use the sun's energy to make carbohydrate molecules from water and carbon dioxide, releasing oxygen as a byproduct. The process of photosynthesis can be summed up in the following chemical equation: Light energy
6CO2_ + 6H2_0 ----------> C6_H12_06_ + 602_
In this chemical equation the six-carbon sugar glucose is a product. The energy stored in glucose and other carbohydrates can be used later to produce ATP.
The process of photosynthesis does not happen all at once; rather, it occurs in two stages.. Photosynthesis begins when light is absorbed in the grana of the chloroplast. This starts the first stage, called the light-dependent reactions . During the light-dependent reactions, water is split into hydrogen ions, electrons, and oxygen (02_). The 02_ diffuses out of the chloroplast and NADPH and ATP are produced.
The second stage of photosynthesis is called the Calvin cycle. The Calvin cycle follows the light-dependent reactions and occurs in the stroma. The products of the light-dependent reactions, ATP and NADPH, are used in the Calvin cycle. The Calvin cycle also requires an input of carbon dioxide (C02_) to produce sugars. ATP and HADPH provide the energy to join hydrogen atoms to carbon dioxide molecules to make sugar molecules
(C6_H12_06_).
Answer in complete sentences or copy the questions and then answer them.
1. What is photosynthesis?
2. What is a pigment?
3. What is the name of the most common photosynthetic pigment?
4. What organelles contain chlorophyll?
5. What is the function of a chloroplast?
6. What are the stacks of structures found of chloroplast called?
7. What material surrounds the grana?
8. What is inside the disks that make up grana?
9. What happens to the sun's energy inside chloroplasts?
10. What substances are used by photosynthesis?
11. What substances are produced by photosynthesis?
12. Write the equation for photosynthesis.
13. Where does the first stage of photosynthesis occur?
14. What is the first stage of photosynthesis called?
15. What substance is used in the light-dependent reaction?
16. What is produced by the light-dependent reaction?
17. Where does the second stage of photosynthesis occur?
18. What is the second stage of photosynthesis called?
19. What molecules provide energy for the Calvin cycle?
20. What other substance is required by the Calvin cycle?
21. What substance is produced by the Calvin Cycle?
22. Sketch and explain figure 4.7 on page 87.
PhotosynStages.jpg


#48.................Due 12/3
ATP and Cellular Energy

THE ATP CYCLE
Life depends on energy. But where does this energy come from? Energy for life's activities is stored in the chemical bonds of energy-storing compounds. These compounds release energy when certain chemical bonds are broken.
Compounds that store energy include ATP NADH, NADPH, and FADH2. (These letters are abbreviations for the complex names of the compounds.) In this chapter you will see how energy-storing compounds take part in the chemical reactions that are vital for life processes.
One of the most important energy-storing compounds is called adenosine triphosphate (uh-DEN-uhseen try-PHOS-fayt), or ATP, is the chief energy-storing molecule used by organisms. An ATP molecule consists of three parts: ribose (a 5 carbon sugar), adenine, and phosphates. Ribose and adenine are chemically bonded to form a molecule called adenosine. A chain of three phosphates-the triphosphate group ("tri-" means "three") is bonded to adenosine.
An ATP molecule releases chemical energy whenever a bond holding a phosphate group to the molecule is broken. This chemical reaction-the release of the end phosphate from ATP-creates a new molecule: ADP
or adenosine diphosphate ("di-" means "two").
The chemical energy released by the breaking of a phosphate bond in ATP can be used by a cell to do work. ATP is involved in three main types of biological work. First, ATP provides energy for the mechanical functions of cells. For example, cells need energy for the movement of cilia and flagella. Muscle cells require energy to contract during movement. Second, ATP is used for the active transport of ions and molecules across cell membranes. Third, ATP is used during synthesis and breakdown of large molecules.
Because cells are constantly at work, they need a constant supply of ATP Cells generate a continuous supply of ATP by attaching a phosphate to an ADP molecule. Forming this chemical bond requires energy. You may be wondering where the energy needed to make ATP comes from. It comes from the process of cellular respiration. The cycle of making and breaking down ATP occurs continuously in cells. The cycle turns very rapidly-10 million new ATP molecules are made in each cell every second.
SOURCES OF ENERGY
You may recall that all cells need energy to carry out the functions of life. This energy comes from food substances containing organic compounds. Organisms break down organic compounds and use the energy stored in the chemical bonds. Organisms are classified into two groups, according to their method of obtaining food.
Organisms that can make food from carbon dioxide and an energy source such as sunlight are called autotrophs (AH-toh-trohfs). Plants, algae, and some bacteria are autotrophs. The foods made by autotrophs are mainly carbohydrates such as glucose, a six-carbon sugar.
Because autotrophs can produce food for their own use as well as provide food for other organisms, they are known as producers. Producers are vitally important to all life on Earth. Without them, other life could not exist. But despite the huge role that producers play in sustaining life on this planet, they account for only about 17-20 percent of the 5 million species alive today.
In addition to making food for immediate use, autotrophs store food for future use-an autotroph's stored food is sometimes used by other organisms. Each year, autotrophs make enough sugar to fill a string of boxcars reaching to the moon and back 50 times! Much of the food stored by autotrophs is used by organisms that cannot make their own food.
Not all autotrophs depend on sunlight for energy to make food. In the 1970s, scientists discovered bacteria living near volcanic thermal vents in the deep sea. The thermal-vent bacteria use energy obtained from inorganic compounds to produce food. These bacteria are producers for vast communities of worms, clams, and other organisms that inhabit a deep-sea world without sunlight.
Heterotrophs that cannot make their own food are called heterotrophs (HET-uh-roh-trohfs). Heterotrophs, which include animals, fungi, and many unicellular organisms, depend on autotrophs or other heterotrophs for food. Because heterotrophs must consume other organisms to obtain food, they are also referred to as consumers.
Food may be passed from autotrophs to heterotrophs directly or indirectly. A heterotroph, such as a grasshopper that eats corn, gets its food directly from autotrophs. Other heterotrophs, such as birds that eat grasshoppers, obtain food from autotrophs indirectly through other autotrophs.
When a heterotroph eats, what happens to food's stored energy? Some of the energy is lost with expelled waste. Cellular processes use some energy. The remaining energy is stored by the heterotroph for future use. This stored energy can also be passed on when the heterotroph is eaten.
Answer in complete sentences or copy the questions and then answer them.
1. Where is the energy for life's activities stored?
2. What compounds are used to store energy?
3. What is the most important energy storing compound?
4. What three parts make up ATP?
5. How is energy released from ATP?
6. From what part of ATP is energy released?
7. What is one general way energy is used by a cell to do work?
8. What is a second general way energy is used?
9. What is a third general way energy is used?
10. How do cells generate a continuous supply of ATP?
11. At what rate does one cell make ATP?
12. What is an autotroph?
13. How are autotrophs important to life on earth?
14. Besides making food, how are autotrophs important?
15. What is a heterotroph?
16. How do heterotrophs obtain food?
17. Draw and explain figure 4.1.
18. Draw and explain figure 4.2.
ATP_ADP.JPG

ATPCycle.jpg

#47.................Due 12/5
Weekly Focus Items

#46..................Due 11/21
Bats
12 Facts about bats.

#45.................Due
Nutty Function
Introduction:
Observing, measuring , and describing change is crucial to doing science. A graph of the data and determining a rate of change is part of the end product of a scientific study.
In this activity, you will measure in millimeters the inside distance between the head of a bolt and the top of nut. Then you will graph and describe how this distance changes as the nut is moved. This activity uses a bolt and nut as a simple system of change for practicing the science skills of measuring and describing change.
Materials: Bolt with matching nut / Graph paper / Metric ruler
Overview: Sketch the bolt with the nut in three positions and give the indicated distances in millimeters.
Draw a T chart and graph for recording and representing the distances for every 5 turns of the nut.
Measure the distance every 5 turns of the nut, record this in a T chart, and graph it.
Use a mathematical expression to describe the relationship between distance and turns.
Predict the distance if the nut could have been turned 100 times.
Procedure:
1. Draw a T chart two lines down from the top of your paper and make it eight lines vertically. The left side will
increase by five each box.
2. Draw a horizontal axis two rows up from the bottom of the paper. Then draw a vertical axis 30 lines high.
3. Label the horizontal axis “Number of turns and the vertical axis “Distance in millimeters.”
4. Number every fifth line on each axis counting by tens.
(Axis are zero. Count 5 lines and write 10. Count 5 more lines and write 20. Count 5 more lines and write 30.)
5. Sketch your bolt in three positions to the right of the T chart. First position is all the way screwed down.
Second position is with the nut turned out five times. Third position is the nut on the last thread almost falling off.
Write the inside distance from the bolts head to the nut for each sketch.
6. Fill out the T Chart:
Twist the nut on the bolt as far as it will go. Measure in millimeters the inside distance between the bolt's head and
nut. Record this distance across from the zero in the T Chart. Now twist the nut five complete turns. Measure this
distance and record it in the T chart across from the five. Repeat this process (five turns, measure, record) until the
nut falls off the bolt.
7. Graph the data on the T chart.
Make a dot on the vertical (Y) axis using the value across from the zero in the T chart.
Make a dot above the 5 position of the horizontal axis using the value across from the 5 in the T chart.
Make a dot above the 10 position of the horizontal axis using the value across from the 10 in the T chart.
Repeat this process for all the values in the T chart. Then draw the best straight lines that represents these dots.
8. Use a mathematical expression to describe the relationship between distance and turns.
f(n) = _ n + _ The first blank is the change and the second blank is the value of the zero step.
9. Use the expression to predict the distance if the nuts could be turned 100 times.
10. Repeat this procedure with a different bolt, but graph the data on the same graph.
NuttyFunctionPic.jpg

#44.................Due 11/19
Microscope Notes
Proper Use of the Microscope

1. When moving your microscope, always carry it with both hands (Figure 1). Grasp the arm with one hand and place the other hand under the base for support.
2. Turn the revolving nosepiece so that the lowest power objective lens is "clicked" into position.

3. Place the microscope slide on the stage and fasten it with the stage clips. You can push down on the back end of the stage clip to open it.
4. Using the coarse adjustment, lower the objective lens down as far as it will go without touching the slide! Note: Look at the slide and lens from the side when doing this (see Figure 2).
5. Look through the eyepiece and adjust the illuminator (or mirror) and diaphragm (Figure 3) for the greatest amount of light.
6. Slowly turn the coarse adjustment so that the objective lens goes up (away from the slide). Continue until the image comes into focus. Use the fine adjustment, if available, for fine focusing.
7. Move the microscope slide around so that the image is in the center of the field of view and readjust the mirror, illuminator or diaphragm for the clearest image.
8. You should be able to change to the next objective lenses with only slight focusing adjustment. Use the fine adjustment, if available. If you cannot focus on your specimen, repeat steps 4 through 7 with the higher power objective lens in place. DO NOT ALLOW THE LENS TO TOUCH THE SLIDE!
9. The proper way to use a monocular microscope is to look through the eyepiece with one eye and keep the other eye open (this helps avoid eye strain). If you have to close one eye when looking into the microscope, it's ok. Remember, everything is upside down and backwards. When you move the slide to the right, the image goes to the left!
10. Do not touch the glass part of the lenses with your fingers. Use only special lens paper to clean the lenses. (read the page on keeping your microscope clean)
11. When finished, raise the tube, click the low power lens into position and remove the slide.
Remember, microscopes are expensive scientific instruments. Handle them properly and carefully!


#43..................Due 11/18
3-3 Topic and Details

81/1, 81/2, 82/1, 82/2, 82/3, 82/4, 82/5, 82/6, 83/1, 83/2, 83/3, 83/4, 84/1, 84/2, 84/3, 84/4, 85/1

#42...................Due 11/21
Focus Items for the week.

#41...................Due 11/14
12 Facts on Lemurs

#40 ...................Due 11/14
More Figures: Duplicate the figures and answer their questions.
DiffusionDiagram.jpg

OSMOSIS
OsmosisDiagram.jpg

FACILITATED DIFFUSION
FacilDiffus.jpg

ACTIVE TRANSPORT
ActiveTransport.jpg

OSMOSIS EFFECTS
OsmosisEffects.jpg

EXOCYTOSIS AND ENDOCYTOSIS
EndoExocytosis.JPG
DIFFUSION AND FACILITATED DIFFUSION
fac_diffusion.jpg




#39.....................Due 11/14
Focus Items (twelve)

#38....................Due 11/7
12 Facts on Chimps


#37....................Due 11/12
Duplicate figures 7, 8, 9, and 11
O2DiffusionLungCell.JPG
OsmosisPlantsFig8.jpg
RootsActiveTransportUp.jpg
CellMembraneTransportColor.jpg



#36.....................Due 11/6
3rd Chapter Section 2 / Topic & Details
74/1, 74/2, 74/3, 75/1, 75/2, 76/1, 76/2, 76/3, 76/4, 77/1, 77/2, 77/3, 77/4, 78/1, 78/2

#35......10/29......Due 11/6
Focus Items: 1 through 25 (numbers 23, 24, & 25 count double)

#.....10/31 Frog and toad skins/ Science vs. Holloween activity.

#34......10/30
#34 Patterns Review
(Follow the directions given and copy every thing not in parenthesis.)
(Don't copy items in parenthesis.)
CirclePattern1.gifHexPattern1.gif

(Follow the directions in parenthesis for each number below. Don't write anything that is in parenthesis.)
1. Circle Pattern: ( Draw steps 4 and 5 / Don't draw 1,2,&3)

2. The pattern goes up by ......
(Subtract the value at step one from the value at step 2)

3. The zero step is ......
(Subtract what the pattern goes up by from step 1 to find the zero step, in other words where X equals zero.)

4. Function for the circle pattern: (Fill in the blanks)
  • (f(n) is the value at step n and is located left of the equal sign / y value)
  • (what the pattern goes up by is first in the expression / slope)
  • (n is the number of the step and is second in the expression / x value)
  • (the value at step zero is third in the expression / y intercept)
f(n) = ..... (n) + .....
5. The 10th Step is
f(....) = ..... (....) + .....
Use the function to determine the value of the function at step 10.
Replace the “n”s with the number 10. Do the math: what it goes up by times the number of the step plus the zero step's value.

6. Hex Pattern: ( Draw steps 4 and 5 / Don't draw 1,2,&3)

7. The pattern goes up by ......
(Subtract the value at step one from the value at step 2)

8. The zero step is ......
(Subtract what the pattern goes up by from step 1 to find the zero step, in other words where X equals zero.)

9. Function for the hex pattern: (Fill in the blanks)
  • (f(n) is the value at step n and is located left of the equal sign / y value)
  • (what the pattern goes up by is first in the expression / slope)
  • (n is the number of the step and is second in the expression / x value)
  • (the value at step zero is third in the expression / y intercept)
f(n) = .... (n) + ....

10. The 10th Step is
f(....) = ..... (....) + .....
Use the function to determine the value of the function at step 10.
Replace the “n”s with the number 10. Do the math: what it goes up by times the number of the step plus the zero step's value.

11. Circle pattern (Follow the directions below to fill out the “T” Chart for the circle pattern)
(Draw the T Chart as shown leaving a space above the 1.)
(Write the values for steps 1 through 5.)
(Write a zero above the 1)
(Determine the zero step. Subtract what the pattern goes up by from step one)
(Now determine an expression that will give us the value at any step. Across the table from the “n” write what the pattern goes up by times “n” plus the value at step zero)
(Now use the expression that will give us the value at any step to determine the value at step 17. Across the “T” Chart from the 17 write, what the pattern goes up by times 17 plus the value at the zero step. Write an equal sign after this expression and do the math to get the value at step 17.)

12. Hex pattern (Follow the directions below to fill out the “T” Chart for the circle pattern)
(Draw the T Chart as shown leaving a space above the 1.)
(Write the values for steps 1 through 5.)
(Write a zero above the 1)
(Determine the zero step. Subtract what the pattern goes up by from step one)
(Now determine an expression that will give us the value at any step. Across the table from the “n” write what the pattern goes up by times “n” plus the value at step zero)
(Now use the expression that will give us the value at any step to determine the value at step 17. Across the “T” Chart from the 17 write, what the pattern goes up by times 17 plus the value at the zero step. Write an equal sign after this expression and do the math to get the value at step 17.)

13. Toothpick pattern 1(Follow the directions below to fill out the “T” Chart for the circle pattern)
(Draw the T Chart as shown leaving a space above the 1.)
(Write the values for steps 1 through 5.)
(Write a zero above the 1)
(Determine the zero step. Subtract what the pattern goes up by from step one)
(Now determine an expression that will give us the value at any step. Across the table from the “n” write what the pattern goes up by times “n” plus the value at step zero)
(Now use the expression that will give us the value at any step to determine the value at step 17. Across the “T” Chart from the 17 write, what the pattern goes up by times 17 plus the value at the zero step. Write an equal sign after this expression and do the math to get the value at step 17.)

14. Squares Pattern (Follow the directions below to fill out the “T” Chart for the circle pattern)
(Draw the T Chart as shown leaving a space above the 1.)
(Write the values for steps 1 through 5.)
(Write a zero above the 1)
(Determine the zero step. Subtract what the pattern goes up by from step one)
(Now determine an expression that will give us the value at any step. Across the table from the “n” write what the pattern goes up by times “n” plus the value at step zero)
(Now use the expression that will give us the value at any step to determine the value at step 17. Across the “T” Chart from the 17 write, what the pattern goes up by times 17 plus the value at the zero step. Write an equal sign after this expression and do the math to get the value at step 17.)


#33......10/29......Due......10/30
Two Column Organic Compound Notes
Copy the note given with its number on the left side of your paper. (Left column)
Summarize the note given by writing it in your own words
or sketching a diagram that shows the concept. (Right column)
Words with arrow explaining your sketch is a good way to show the concept.
Sketches that don't show the concept will not earn credit.
1. Organic compounds are usually associated with
living things and always contain carbon and hydrogen.

2. Coal is non-living, but is an organic compounds because
it formed from dead plants.

3. Organic compound can contain hundreds or thousands
of atoms of the elements: S, P, O, N, C, H
Sulfur / Phosphorous / Oxygen / Nitrogen / Carbon / Hydrogen

4. Four groups of organic compounds that make up living
things are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

5. Carbohydrates are organic molecules that supply energy
for cell process and make up cell walls.

6. Sugars, starches, and cellulose(wood fibers) are examples
of carbohydrates.

7. Lipids are organic molecules that store even more energy
than carbohydrates and is a major part of cell membranes.

8. Lipids do not mix with water and fats and oils are examples.
9. Proteins are the building blocks of structures in living things.
10. Proteins are made up of smaller molecules called
amino acids that contain the elements nitrogen and sometimes sulfur.

11. Enzymes are special proteins that regulate nearly all
chemical reactions in the cell.

12. Nucleic Acids are organic molecules that
store coded in formation.

13. The nucleic acid DNA stores information in the nucleus of cells.
14. The nucleic acid RNA brings information to the ribosomes
on how to make proteins.

#32......10/29......Due 10/30
Focus Items: 1 through 22

#31......10/27......Due 10/28
3-1 Questions: (Answers are on pages 66-69)
Copy the sentence and fill in the blank or answer with another complete sentence.

1. What is matter? Matter is anything that has _ and takes up space.
2. What is energy? Energy is anything that can bring about _.
3. What makes and breaks bonds between atom? _ makes and breaks the bonds between atoms.
4. What is matter made of? Matter is made of _, _, and _.
5. What particles are found in the nucleus? _ and _ are found in the nucleus of an atom.
6. What particle is found outside the nucleus? _ are found outside the nucleus of an atom.
7. What particle has a positive charge? The _ has a positive charge.
8. What particle has a negative charge? The _ has a negative charge.
9. What particle has a neutral charge? The _ has no charge.
10. Compare the size of a proton and electron. A _ has 1,837 times more mass than an _.
11. Compare the size of a proton and neutron. Protons and neutrons have nearly _ masses.
12. What part of the atom is involved in chemical reactions? _ are the atomic particles involved in chemical reactions.
13. Looking at a diagram of an atom, are atoms mostly particles or mostly space? Atoms are mostly _ _.
14. What is an element? Elements are substance made of _ _ _ _.
15. What can't chemical reactions do to elements? Elements can't be _ _ into a simpler form by chemical reactions.
16. What six elements make up about 99% of living matter? 99% of living matter is made up of the elements _.
17. What is a compound? A compound is _ _ _ _.
18. What are the two types of compounds? The two type of compounds are _ and _.
19. What is a molecule? A molecule is _ _ _ _.
20. When do molecular compounds form? Molecular compound form when atoms _ _.
21. When do atoms have no charge? Atoms have no charge when they have an equal number of _ and _.
22. What charge does an atom have if it gains an electron? An atom has a _ charge if it gains an electron.
23. What charge does an atom have if it loses an electron? An atom has a _ charge if it loses an electron.
24. What are ions? Ions are _ _ _ _.
25. When do ionic compounds form? Ionic compounds form when _ _ _ _.
26. What ions are involved in the functioning of nerve cells? _ and _ allow impulses to travel along nerve cell membranes.
27. What ions are involved in the functioning of muscle cells? _ ions leaving the musle cells allow muscles to contract.
29. What is a mixture? A mixture is _ _ _ _.
30. What is a solution? A solution is _ _ _ _.
31. What is a suspension? A suspension is _ _ _ _.

#30......10/24......Due 10/24
15 Questions on Mongoose

#29......10/20......Due 10/24
Focus Items for the week.
To be done the first and last 5 minutes of class.

#28......10/20......Due 10/24
3rd Chapter Section 1 / Topic & Details
66/1, 66/2, 67/1, 67/2, 67/3, 67/4, 68/1a, 68/1b, 68/2, 68/3, 68/4, 69/1, 69/2, 69/3, 69/4, 69/5
70/1, 70/2, 70/3, 71/1, 71/2, 71/3, 72/1, 72/2, 73/1, 73/2, 73/3